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Hemifacial microsomia diagnosis

Hemifacial Microsomia Children's Hospital of Philadelphi

  1. Hemifacial microsomia is a congenital condition in which the tissues on one side of the face are underdeveloped. It primarily affects the ear, mouth and jaw areas, though it may also involve the eye, cheek, neck and other parts of the skull, as well as nerves and soft tissue
  2. ation and, in some cases, a meeting with a genetic counselor
  3. Background: Hemifacial microsomia, or HFM, is the second most common facial anomaly, second only to cleft lip and palate. New therapeutic and clinical management techniques offer promising interventions that can allow many patients to have more normal childhoods at earlier ages
  4. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a condition in which part of one side of the face is underdeveloped and does not grow normally. The eye, cheekbone, lower jaw, facial nerves, muscles, and neck may be affected
  5. ation at birth. A genetic evaluation helps deter
  6. Hemifacial microsomia, or HFM, is the second most common facial anomaly, second only to cleft lip and palate. New therapeutic and clinical management techniques offer promising interventions that can allow many patients to have more normal childhoods at earlier ages

Diagnosing and Treating Hemifacial Microsomia Weill

Abstract Introduction: Long-term results after orthopedic or surgical treatment of hemifacial microsomia (HFM) have shown a tendency toward recurrence of the facial asymmetry. However, the literature contains a number of successful case reports that show surprising changes in the morphology of the condyles Hemifacial microsomia is a clinical diagnosis. There is a variable phenotype and clinical features are part of a spectrum of severity. It is usually unilateral but can be bilateral (but still asymmetric) in about 10%. Patient with hemifacial microsomia and their CT 3D reconstructio Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the second most common congenital facial anomaly after cleft lip/palate. The condition may vary from mild to severe. Goldenhar syndrome has been described as a variant of HFM, in which vertebral anomalies and epibulbar dermoids were present 1. J Ultrasound Med. 1986 Aug;5(8):461-3. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of hemifacial microsomia (Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome). Tamas DE, Mahony BS, Bowie JD, Woodruff WW 3rd, Kay HH Hemifacial microsomia symptoms can appear during a prenatal ultrasound, and an HFM diagnosis can be completed after birth. To diagnose HFM, a doctor will evaluate a patient's facial appearance. The doctor will assess the patient's jaw

Hemifacial Microsomia

  1. Hemifacial Microsomia is characterized by the underdevelopment of the lower jaw, the general underdevelopment of the lower area of the face, imbalanced development of the face from one side to the other, and/or underdeveloped inner and outer ears. In some cases, one eye might appear smaller than the other or even be missing completely
  2. Craniofacial Microsomia Hemifacial microsomia is a condition in which the structures on one side of the face are smaller or underdeveloped relative to the other side. The severity of hemifacial microsomia varies widely from person to person, but the ear and lower jaw are always affected
  3. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates that early diagnosis and intervention in a patient with hemifacial microsomia is quintessential for proper functioning and esthetics of the orofacial structures, which will lead to a better prognosis
  4. emifacial microsomia is a condition that simply comes out of the blue. It does not run in families and is not the result of a disease process. Simply stated, it is a birth defect. Some cases of hemifacial microsomia can be very mild, but others can be more severe. A doctor or medical team makes the clinical diagnosis
  5. Hemifacial macrosomia (HFM) is the second most common facial congenital anomaly. Deficiency of hard and soft tissue on one side of the face is its obvious clinical finding, which can cause facial asymmetry. Hemifacial microsomia is described in three grades of severity, although grade II has two subgroups (mild and severe)
  6. Hemifacial microsomia. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a condition in which the tissue on one side of the face is underdeveloped, affecting primarily the aural (ear), oral (mouth), and mandibular (jaw) areas. Sometimes, both sides of the face can be affected and may involve the skull, as well as the face
  7. The ICD-10-CM code Q67.0 might also be used to specify conditions or terms like asymmetric crying face association, clapo syndrome, congenital facial asymmetry, facial asymmetry, hemifacial microsomia, hemifacial microsomia with radial defect syndrome, etc

Differential diagnosis includes localized scleroderma, Rasmussen syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, Goldenhar syndrome, idiopathic facial palsy, Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy and partial acquired lipodystrophy. Patients with face injuries (e.g. burns), fat necrosis and congenital deformities (e.g. wry neck) should also be considered Hemifacial Microsomia Hemifacial microsomia, or craniofacial microsomia, is a congenital condition characterized by hypoplasia, or underdevelopment of the skeleton and soft tissue structures on one or both sides of the face Diagnosis and Treatment of Craniofacial Conditions. There are several hundred distinct craniofacial conditions that affect the face, skull, jaw and ears. Among them are hemifacial microsomia, Pierre Robin syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, non-syndromic craniosynostosis, and syndromic craniosynostosis, which includes Apert syndrome, Crouzon. Q67.4 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM Q67.4 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of Q67.4 - other international versions of ICD-10 Q67.4 may differ. A type 1 excludes note is a pure excludes • Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is defined as a condition that involves an absence or underdevelopment of structures that arise from the first and second pharyngeal arches • The disorder varies from mild to severe, and occurs on one side in many cases

Hemifacial microsomia Genetic and Rare Diseases

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Moeschler-Clarren syndrome) Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder that affects the development of the lower half of the face, most commonly the ears, the mouth and the mandible. It usually occurs on one side of the face, but both sides are sometimes affected 1. Introduction. Aetiologic diagnosis is possibly the most difficult, but also the most important step in the treatment of facial deformities. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a relatively common craniofacial anomaly with a birth prevalence of at least 1/5600, characterized by the asymmetric underdevelopment of structures originating from the Ist & IInd branchial arches

Hemifacial Microsomia Conditions UCSF Benioff Children

  1. g a physical exam. Because the range of severity for HFM is so wide, a geneticist experienced in identifying such conditions usually makes the diagnosis
  2. Hemifacial microsomia generally refers to the under-development of one side of the face, which results in asymmetry (unevenness) of the face. This under-development happened to the baby while in utero, but researchers believe it has nothing to do with anything the mother did while pregnant
  3. The type and severity of hemifacial microsomia is different for every child. The Cleft and Craniofacial Center at Boston Children's hospital treats children with all forms of this condition, providing surgical solutions for even the most severe cases.. What are the treatments for hemifacial microsomia? Some children with hemifacial microsomia will need more procedures and more involved care.
  4. Overview. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a condition in which part of one side of the face is underdeveloped and does not grow normally. The eye, cheekbone, lower jaw, facial nerves, muscles, and neck may be affected.[5476][5477][7758] Other findings may include hearing loss from underdevelopment of the middle ear; a small tongue; and macrostomia (large mouth).[7758] HFM is the second most.
  5. prospective prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of OAVS are based on the recognition of unilateral microphthalmia and/or hemifacial hypoplasia1,8, as was found in the present case. In the other cases, the final diagnosis was made only after birth, and followed the intrauterine recognition of unusual facial anomalies4-9
  6. It is generally accepted that, for a postnatal diagnosis of OAVS, at least two of the following criteria must be met 16: otic hypoplasia, hemifacial microsomia, lateral facial cleft, epibulbar dermoid and/or upper eye lid coloboma and vertebral anomalies (fusion of vertebral body or spine and segmentation abnormality or 'butterfly' vertebra)
  7. We offer state-of-the-art diagnosis and treatment for Hemifacial Microsomia, Goldenhar syndrome, and other birth defects. About Hemifacial Microsomia Hemifacial microsomia syndrome is the second most prevalent congenital facial anomaly with a reported incidence of about 1 in 5600 live births after cleft lip/cleft palate
Hemifacial microsomia2

Hemifacial microsomia: Etiology, diagnosis and treatment

emifacial microsomia is a condition that simply comes out of the blue. It does not run in families and is not the result of a disease process. Simply stated, it is a birth defect. Some cases of hemifacial microsomia can be very mild, but others can be more severe. A doctor or medical team makes the clinical diagnosis 10.1055/b-0038-162656 4 Craniofacial MicrosomiaPatrick A. Gerety, Albert K. Oh, and Jesse A. Taylor Summary Management of Mandibular Hypoplasia in Pediatric Unilateral Craniofacial Microsomia attempts to succinctly describe the major principles of the surgical treatment of mandibular asymmetry in patients with unilateral craniofacial or hemifacial microsomia Early diagnosis and early treatments are needed if the jaw is underdeveloped and causes problems in breathing and feeding. In the same manner, in the case of the Goldenhar syndrome, which is the same as the hemifacial microsomia, there is a rare congenital disability characterized by incomplete development in the parts such as the ears, nose.

True hemifacial microsomia and hemimandibular hypoplasia

Hemifacial microsomia is considered the most common facial birth defect after clefts. Hemifacial microsomia occurs in one in every 5,600 births. Causes of Hemifacial Microsomia. While the cause of the condition is unknown, it is thought that hemifacial microsomia is the result of impaired blood flow during the first 6 to 8 weeks of fetal.

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital condition, meaning that it is present at birth, as opposed to being acquired during or after birth. Hemifacial microsomia is the second most common facial birth defect after cleft lip and cleft palate. It occurs in approximately one in 3500-4000 live births. In children with HFM, part of one side of. Hemifacial microsomia (HM) is a congenital craniofacial malformation caused by hypoplasia of anatomical structures deriving from the first and second branchial arches. As a result, HM involves facial skeleton, soft tissues, ear, and cranial nerves, thus resulting in the absence or insufficiency of these components [ 1 Hemifacial microsomia, also known as first and second branchial arch syndrome, craniofacial microsomia, oculo-auriculo-vertebral sequence or Goldenhar syndrome, is a condition characterized by abnormalities of the face. Phenotypic variability is great; however, the ear and jaw are most commonly affected Craniofacial microsomia has been estimated to occur in between 1 in 5,600 and 1 in 26,550 newborns. However, this range may be an underestimate because not all medical professionals agree on the criteria for diagnosis of this condition, and because mild cases may never come to medical attention

Furthermore, signs and symptoms of Microsomia - hemifacial - radial defects may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of any signs or symptoms and whether they are indeed Microsomia - hemifacial - radial defects symptoms Hemifacial (one side of the face) Microsomia is a rare disease, the defining feature of which is the underdevelopment of one half of the face. This underdevelopment may be mild or severe. It is known to vary from individual to individual. However in every individual diagnosed, an undeveloped lower jaw is a consistent feature

Abstract We present a case of hemifacial microsomia, first detected by prenatal sonography and confirmed by ultrafast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A 26-year-old patient was referred to our hospital at 20 weeks of gestation because of unilateral right-sided ventriculomegaly and of a possible ventriculoseptal defect (VSD). Our sonographic examination suggested a right orbital hypoplasia and. The differential diagnosis should include: hemifacial microsomia but this is congenital and essentially non-progressive condition ; post-traumatic atrophy and partial lipodystrophy (Barraquer-Simon Syndrome) are also included in the differential diagnosis. However, partial lipodystrophy is usually bilateral and involves primarily the adipose tissu In humans, hemifacial microsomia is the second most common developmental craniofacial anomaly after cleft lip and cleft palate. Hemifacial microsomia results from the abnormal development of the first and second branchial arches and the first branchial membrane. Congenital malformations similar to feline HFM have been reported in other species Diagnosis. Hemifacial microsomia is diagnosed by physical examination at birth. A genetic evaluation helps determine if the hemifacial microsomia is isolated or is part of another syndrome or condition. Treatment. The goal of treatment is to balance the appearance of the two sides of the face as much as possible. Depending on the particular. Overview. Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) includes several conditions characterized by defects that occur when the fetus is forming within the womb of the mother, in structures known as the first and second brachial arch.These structures will develop to form the neck and the head. The first arches produce the lower jaw, two bones inside the ear, and nerves and muscles for chewing

Hemifacial Microsomia - Illustrations and Explanation

Various classifications have been developed to grade the degrees of hemifacial microsomia. Pruzansky described ear and mandible deformities into grades I to III. This case is an example of a Pruzansky IIb. 3D printing used in other walks of li.. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) or first & second brachial arch syndrome is an asymmetric craniofacial malformation which results in hypoplasia of the components of the first and second branchial arches: maxilla, mandible, external and middle ear, facial and trigeminal nerves, muscles of mastication, and overlying soft tissue. 2nd M/C birth defect of the face (after cleft lip and cleft palate Hemifacial microsomia or Goldenhar syndrome includes unilateral malformation of the external ear, hemifacial hypoplasia with epibulbar dermoid and vertebral anomalies. There are no consensual diagnostic criteria and it is a clinically heterogeneous birth defect. 6 Several cases of this rare syndrome were already reported in the literature, but.

Craniofacial Microsomia. For appointments in Seattle or Everett, call 206-987-2208. For appointments in the Tri-Cities, call 509-946-0976. If you live outside of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Washington and Wyoming, please call 206-987-0184 or email us for more information Craniofacial microsomia is a unique clinical presentation of 1 st and 2 nd arch syndrome with asymmetrical craniofacial development along with conductive hearing loss. It involves the underdevelopment of the structures of the first and second pharyngeal arches: Maxilla, mandible, external and middle ear, facial and trigeminal nerves, muscles of mastication and overlying soft tissue Hemifacial Microsomia is a congenital disorder that affects the development of half of the face typically affecting the eye, ear, mouth, cheek bone, and jaw. When this condition is accompanied by symptoms such as spine deformities or narrowing of the eye, it is referred to as Goldenhar syndrome, which is much rarer. Dr HEMIFACIAL microsomia (HFM) is a term coined by Gorlin and colleagues. 1,2 This disorder has also been called otomandibular dysostosis, 3 first branchial arch syndrome, 4 second branchial arch syndrome, 5 oculoauriculovertebral sequence, 6 Goldenhar syndrome, 7 lateral facial dysplasia, 8 and craniofacial microsomia. 9 Hemifacial microsomia manifests in a highly variable phenotype

A wide range of terminology is used to refer to patients with CFM: hemifacial microsomia, Goldenhar syndrome, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum or dysplasia, first and second branchial arch syndrome, or facio-auriculo-vertebral syndrome or sequence Hemifacial microsomia is a congenital disorder that affects the development of the lower half of the face. It most commonly affects the ears, mouth and mandible. There is marked facial asymmetry with resultant disfigurement of the face. Hemifacial microsomia is the second most common birth defect of the face after cleft lip and palate deformity

Hemifacial microsomia Radiology Reference Article

How Is Hemifacial Microsomia Diagnosed? A thorough examination of your child's face and head is the first step toward diagnosis. Findings related to their ears, face, jaw and teeth will help the doctor determine whether they have HFM or another condition. For more information, X-rays and computed tomography (CT) imaging can also be helpful The term hemifacial microsomia was first used by Gorlin and Pindborg (1964), who described a condition consisting of unilateral microtia, macrostomia, and failure of formation of the mandibular ramus and condyle. Since then, hemifacial microsomia has been considered one phenotypic manifestation of a group of disorders that affect the face, ears. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital problem. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby's face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM) in Children What is hemifacial microsomia in children? Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital problem. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby's face is underdeveloped. (Hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face

Hemifacial microsomia, also called Goldenhar syndrome and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, is a genetic condition that produces abnormal head growth. It causes noticeable asymmetry of facial features. The eyes, jaws, ears, and soft tissues of the face are all affected. Some cases are more severe than others Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a craniofacial malformation that results in varying degrees of hypoplasia of the structures within the first and second branchial archs. 34,35,38,53,62,65,66,81,84,174,227 Congenital hypoplasia is generally unilateral, although bilateral (asymmetric) involvement occurs in 5% to 15% of patients. Most cases of this condition are sporadic, but there are rare. There is no single surgery for hemifacial microsomia — a variety of different surgical procedures may be needed to address the range of deformities a child has. That's why it's so important that a child diagnosed with hemifacial microsomia be seen by a multidisciplinary team of experts in a craniofacial program. Some of the procedures in a patient's treatment plan might be Hemifacial microsomia is the second congenital malformation in prevalence, after cleft lip and palate, and is described as a congenital alteration of the first and second branchial arches. As a condition of wide spectrum, its characteristics are expressed in many different ways and therefore treatments are usually individualized Etiologic diagnosis is possibly the most difficult, but also the most important, step in orthodontic treatment. Facial asymmetries are certainly a challenging chapter for both the orthodontist and the maxillofacial surgeon. Hemifacial microsomia (HFM), the best known of the branchial arch syndromes, is a relatively common craniofacial anomaly wit

Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of hemifacial microsomia

CASE 8. Hemifacial Microsomia (Figures 58 Through 60) Figure 58: (A-D) Patient is a 14-year-old female, diagnosed with Hemifacial microsomia. The left condyle and fossa were poorly developed, and patient developed worsening facial asymmetry over the years. The maxilla and mandible are retruded Hemifacial Microsomia is a congenital birth defect causing the lower half of one side of the face to become underdeveloped or have a shorter appearance. The jaw bone on one side of the face does not grow at the same rate as the non-affected side of the face. Often times, an individual having Hamifacial Microsomia will have a crooked smile and. But, of course, a diagnosis of Hemifacial Microsomia is much more likely to be the culprit of the hearing loss in your case as the condition commonly causes hearing loss according the sources I cited originally

Chinese Guidelines for the Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemifacial Microsomia-congenital microtia: Edition: Original: Classification: Standard guideline: Field: Diagnosis and Treatment: Countries and regions: China: Guidelines users: Plastic surgeons: Evidence classification method: GRADE: Development unit. Hemifacial microsomia is a common birth defect involving the first and second branchial arch derivatives. It typically affects the external ear, middle ear, mandible and temporomandibular joint, muscles of mastication and facial muscles, and other facial soft tissues on the affected side Craniofacial (Hemifacial) Microsomia is a relatively common disorder in which the lower half of one side of the face is underdeveloped and does not grow normally having as a result facial asymmetry or/and malformative development of certain organs. The degree of malformation varies from mild degree that is just perceived up to very severe degree

Hemifacial Microsoma Facial Paralysis Institut

10.1055/b-0036-135617 71 Hemifacial Microsomia and Distraction Osteogenesis Ajul Shah, Anup Patel, and Derek M. Steinbacher Introduction Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital, nonheritable c Hemifacial microsomia is known by other names such as lateral facial palsy, branchial arch syndrome, first and second branchial arch anomaly etc. The etiology of this condition is uncertain although physicians believe it is caused by some vascular problem in face during the first trimester of fetal development Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital facial deformity involving the structures of the first and second pharyngeal arches: maxilla, mandible, external and middle ear, facial and trigeminal nerves, muscles of mastication, and overlying soft tissue. Early diagnosis allows for early intervention,. Distinguish hemifacial microsomia from other congenital craniofacial anomalies sharing similar features. 3. Understand the variety of systems developed to clinically classify the features of this disorder. 4. Describe the format of the OMENS clinical classification system and appreciate its possible advantages and limitations

1. Wink JD, Goldstein JA, Paliga JT, Taylor JA, Bartlett SP. The mandibular deformity in hemifacial microsomia: A reassessment of the Pruzansky and Kaban classification. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:174e-181 Hemifacial microsomia (HM) is a congenital craniofacial malformation caused by hypoplasia of anatomical structures deriving from the first and second branchial arches. As a result, HM involves facial skeleton, soft tissues, ear, and cranial nerves, thus resulting in the absence or insufficiency of these components [1] HEMIFACIAL MICROSOMIA; HFM SNOMEDCT: 703973009, 109393007, 254026007, 254025006, 205418005, 367462009, 15557005, 1010685005 a personal medical or genetic condition are urged to consult with a qualified physician for diagnosis and for answers to personal questions..

Hemifacial Microsomia Syndrome Treatment Plano & Dallas, T

Hemifacial microsomia. In this condition, one side of the face is underdeveloped. Hemifacial microsomia is the most common facial birth defect except for cleft lip and palate Hemifacial microsomia and lateral facial clefts. Hemifacial microsomia is a congenital disorder that affects the development of the lower half of the face. It most commonly affects the ears, the mouth and the mandible. It usually occurs on one side of the face, but rarely involves both sides. When severe, it may result in breathing difficulties. Diagnosis Family history Clinical examination OPG Ceph AP adiograph CBCT CT MRI Photo 3D photo Laser Genetic analysis Classification of Hemifacial Microsomia Mn classification originated from Purzansky 1969 and Kaban 1991, then OMENS added the Mn to it - Vento & Le Brie 1991 Mandible modification by Kaban (Purzansky 1969, Kaban 1981 & 1991 Although facial paralysis is a fundamental feature of hemifacial microsomia, the frequency and distribution of nerve abnormalities in patients with hemifacial microsomia remain unclear. In this study, the authors classified 1125 cases with microtia (including 339 patients with hemifacial microsomia. G51.3 should not be used for reimbursement purposes as there are multiple codes below it that contain a greater level of detail. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM G51.3 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of G51.3 - other international versions of ICD-10 G51.3 may differ

MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See additional information . home / medterms medical dictionary a-z list / hemifacial microsomia definitio Hemifacial microsomia (HFM), also known as the rst and second branchial arch syndrome or hemifacial hypo-plasia, is mainly characterized by unilateral mandibular maldevelopment [1]. Because of the impaired develop-ment of the aected side, the mandible progressively shortens and narrows, leading to concomitant reductio hemifacial microsomia (mi?kro-so'me-a), HFM A rare congenital anomaly, usually inherited sporadically, in which one side of the body, usually the right, fails to develop equally with the left. The ear, nose, and maxilla on the affected side are hypoplastic. In addition the right lung and kidney may be smaller than normal, and affected children often. The Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) ( latin for short stature a half of the face) is a very rare, with the Craniofacial microsomia to be counted congenital disease with the main features of an enlarged, recessed, or lack of eye ( oculi), an microtia with untrained ear canal ( Auriculo), a one-sided growth disorder of the face, a chin shifted to the diseased side , one-sided higher corner of the. Hemifacial spasm is a nervous system disorder in which the muscles on one side of your face twitch involuntarily. Hemifacial spasm is most often caused by a blood vessel touching a facial nerve, but it may be caused by a facial nerve injury or a tumor, or it may not have a cause

13 Lateral Facial Dysplasias: Treacher Collins SyndromeGoldenhar syndrome: A rare case report Bhuyan R, Pati AR

Hemifacial microsomia is the second most common facial birth disorder after cleft lip and palate, with an incidence of 1 in 3500 to 6000 live births. The condition is bilateral in about 10% of these subjects Hemifacial microsomia is also known as Goldenhar syndrome, brachial arch syndrome, facio-auriculo-vertebral syndrome (FAV), oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), or lateral facial dysplasia. The deformity in hemifacial microsomia varies greatly in the degree of severity and in the area of the face involved The most recognizable symptom is the presence of facial abnormalities, in particular hemifacial microsomia. These occur when the bones and muscles in the face are underdeveloped on just one side. A veces, ambos lados de la cara pueden verse afectados y puede comprometerse el cráneo y la cara. La microsomía hemifacial también se conoce como síndrome de Goldenhar, síndrome del arco branquial, síndrome facio-aurículo-vertebral, espectro óculo-aurículo-vertebral o displasia facial lateral This is felt to represent the mildest form of hemifacial microsomia 2-3. Classification of Microtia . Microtia is graded in accordance with the number of vestigal ear structures present. Some surgeons and research articles refer to this as grades of microtia. Anotia: complete absence of the external ear

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